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Coats a spoon when a substance is rendered thin/thick enough so that when a wooden or metal spoon is inserted into it and taken out, the substance leaves a thin film coating the spoon.
Cream - to - The process where sugar and softened butter are beaten together with a wooden spoon, until the mixture is light, pale and well blended. This process may also be carried out with a hand held mixer or in a food processor.
Confit - A preserving technique where meat is cooked and preserved in its own fat.
seal the edges or two layers of dough using the fingertips or a fork.
Cube - to to cut foods into small even-sized pieces ranging from 12mm/½ inch to 2.5cm/1 inch.
in - to
To incorporate fat into a dry ingredient, such as flour, by using a knife
and making cutting movements in order to break the fat down.
The state of a liquid or food, such as eggs, to divide into liquid and
solids, usually due to the application excess heat.
The process of cooking food by immersion in hot fat or oil in a deep pan
or electric fryer to give a crisp, golden coating.
To use a liquid such as stock, water or wine, to dissolve food particles which
are left in a pan after roasting or frying.
To cut ingredients into small cubes. Sizes range from 5mm/¼
inch to 15mm/¾ inch.
Drizzle - To drip a liquid substance, such as a sauce or dressing, over food usually in a semi fluid motion
off - The removal of excess moisture from foods during cooking. Not to be
confused with drying or reducing. An example of drying off is when potatoes
are placed over a low heat after having been drained in order to dry them off
sprinkle lightly with flour, sugar or seasonings.
mixture of beaten eggs with liquid (usually milk) used to coat baked goods.
This gives a shiny appearance once cooked.
blending of two liquids that don't naturally combine or dissolve into each
other without agitation, or that aren't mutually soluble. The classic examples
are oil and water, French dressing and mayonnaise.
- To add alcohol to a dish and ignited in order to burn off
the alcohol and intensify the flavour. This can be done at the cooker or, as
in the case of Christmas Puddings or Crepes, at the table.
- Used in pastry or biscuit making as a decoration. Pies and tarts are
fluted around the edge by pinching the pastry between the forefinger and thumb
to create v-shaped grooves.
Also A toothed, piping nozzle which is used to flute cream and icing for cake decoration.
Fold in - To gently combine lighter mixtures with heavier ones usually using a metal spoon or spatula in a cutting or slicing J movement whilst slightly lifting the utensil.
Fry - To cook over a brisk heat, in oil or fat to obtain a good seal and colour.
to To decorate a
finished dish with extra items such as parsley, lemon wedges etc.
To give a food a shiny appearance by coating it with a sauce or similar
substance such as aspic or melted jam.
reduce a food to very small particles by rubbing it against a sharp, rough
surface, usually a grater or
cover the inside surface of a dish or pan with a layer of fat, such as
butter or margarine, or oil using a brush or kitchen paper.
Grease -to To cover the inside surface of a dish or pan with a layer of fat, such as butter or margarine, or oil using a brush or kitchen paper.
Grill - to - To cook foods from above, under a heat source such as gas or electricity.
Infuse/infusing - The soaking or standing of food in hot water or liquid in order to extract the flavour of the food .
Julienne - Food which is cut into thin strips, to a thickness of approximately 2mm/ 1/8 inch and a length ranging from 2.5cm/1inch to 5cm/2 inches as standard.
- A rhythmic action in dough making whereby one end of the dough is
secured by the heel of one hand and stretched away, then pulled back
over the top. In bread making, two hands are use.
- To press out air bubbles in a risen dough before
shaping and proving.
- No No No !
The term used in pastry making, when two edges of uncooked pastry are
pressed together and the cut edges are lightly scored with the back of a knife
to produce a better seal.
Marinade A mixture or wet and/or dry ingredients used to flavour or tenderise food prior to cooking.
Marinate - To soak foods in a marinade to enhance the flavour. It also sometimes has the effect of tenderising foods such as meat.
Mash - to - Break down food items with a fork or other specialised mashing equipment until a smoother texture is achieved.
Papillote - en - A method of cooking, in which food is wrapped sealed and cooked, usually in greaseproof paper or tin foil.
partially cook food by boiling prior to another method of cooking.
Pipe to - To shape or decorate food using a forcing bag or utensil fitted with a plain or decorated nozzle.
Poach - To cook food in hot liquid over a gentle heat to the liquid is barely bubbling.
Prick - To make small shallow holes in food with a fork or the tip of a small sharp knife mainly to allow for the escape of moisture during cooking
- To allow a yeast dough to rise by placing, covered, in a warm
Purée - to - To process food by means of mashing, sieving or processing in a food processor until very smooth.
Reduce - To boil a liquid rapidly in order to decrease its volume by evaporation and produce a concentrated flavour and thicker consistency.
plunge food into, or run under, cold water after branching to prevent further
To cook food in an oven or on a spit over a fire.
Rubbing in - The incorporation of fat into flour. Butter is softened and cubed then gently rubbed between the thumb and forefinger, lifting the mixing at the same time, until the fat is fully incorporated and the mixture resembles fine breadcrumbs in appearance.
Sauté - The cooking of food in a small amount of fat, preferably in a single layer, until it browns and softens. Small items are cooked uncovered, but larger pieces may need covering after the initial browning to complete the cooking. The pan is shaken, over a high heat to move the food around, and prevent sticking. It is important not to overfill the pan.
Scald - To heat a liquid, usually milk until it is almost boiling at which point very small bubbles begin to form around the age of the pan.
- to - To make shallow
incisions with a small knife on the surface of foods, either
with parallel lines or
criss-cross patterns in order to improve its appearance or to absorb the
flavours of bastes and marinades. Also aids in even cooking.
To brown the surface of food in fat over a high heat before
finishing cooking by another method, in order to add flavour.
1. To add flavourings such as salt, pepper, herbs, spices etc. to foods.
2. To season a pan - Rub the inside of a clean pan with a good layer of oil, bake it in the oven at 300 degrees for an hour, and wipe off the excess oil. This can be done a few times to start build up the layer.
Season to taste - Usually refers to adding extra salt and pepper.
Shallow-fry - To cook in oil which is no more than 1.25cm (1/2 inch) deep.
tear or cut into food into thin strips.
Sift - To pass a dry ingredient, such as flour, through a sieve to ensure it is lump free.
- To maintain the temperature of a liquid at
just below boiling.
remove impurities from the surface of a liquid, such as stock, during or after
- The removal of skin from meat, fish, poultry, fruit, nuts and
cut food, such as bread, meat, fish or vegetables, into flat pieces of varying
Soak - to - To completely cover with liquid and leave for a varying amount of time
- The cooking of food in steam, over rapidly boiling water or other
liquid. The food is usually suspended above such liquid
by means of a trivet or steaming basket, although in the case of
puddings, the basin actually sits in the water.
Steep - To soak food in a liquid such as alcohol or syrup until saturated.
Stew - to - To place food in liquid and cook, covered, on the top of the cooker.
Stir-fry - To fry small pieces of food quickly in a large frying pan or wok, over a high heat , using very little fat and constantly moving the food around the pan throughout cooking, keeping them in contact with the hot wok.
separate liquids from solids by passing through a sieve, muslin or similar.
Sweat - To cook food in a covered pan in a small amount of fat, so the natural juices run into the pan. Foods cooked in this way will soften but not brown.
Toss - to - To lightly mix ingredients together, usually in order to coat solid ingredients with a dressing or sauce
To tie up meat or poultry with string before cooking in order to make a more
compact shape for even cooking or produce a better appearance.
- To beat an item, such as cream or egg whites, in order to
incorporate air and, usually, thicken.
beat air into a mixture until soft and fluffy.
- A hand
held tool with small, sharp-edged holes at the end of it, which cuts orange,
lemon or grapefruit peel into fine shreds.